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Linear Tape-Open(LTO)


Writing to a blank tape starts at band 0, wrap 0, a forward wrap that runs from the beginning of the tape (BOT) to the end of the tape (EOT) and includes a track that runs along one side of the data band. The next wrap written, band 0, wrap 1, is a reverse wrap (EOT to BOT) and includes a track along the other side of the band. Wraps continue in forward and reverse passes, with slight shifts toward the middle of the band on each pass. The tracks written on each pass partially overlap the tracks written on the previous wrap of the same direction, like roof shingles. The back and forth pattern, working from the edges into the middle, conceptually resembles a coiled serpent and is known as linear serpentine recording.




Linear Tape-Open(LTO)



When the first data band is filled (they are filled in 3, 1, 0, 2 order across the tape), the head assembly is moved to the second data band and a new set of wraps is written in the same linear serpentine manner. The total number of tracks on the tape is (4 data bands) (11 to 52 wraps per band) (8, 16, or 32 tracks per wrap). For example, an LTO-2 tape has 16 wraps per band, and thus requires 64 passes to fill.


Digital linear tape (DLT) is another type of magnetic tape used for storage and archiving. Digital Equipment Corp. developed the DLT technology in the 1980s. In 1994, Quantum purchased the technology. Quantum has since adopted the LTO standard. DLT tapes are still available from Quantum and other manufacturers.


The LTO drive that does a digital recording of data on magnetic tape is only capable of moving tape in a single direction. As such, only sequential access storage can be possible in tapes. This adversely affects the speed of storage & retrieval of data due to its constraints of linear technology.


Due to limitations of linear technology, if new data is inserted/existing data modified in between leads to erasure of data beyond the point of insertion or modification. Data has to be necessarily added to tape right from the point of last written sector to avoid any deletion of existing data. This sometimes leads to data replication and also minimizes the optimal use of storage space of LTO tapes.


The LTO Ultrium format is a powerful, scalable, adaptable open tape format developed and continuously enhanced by technology providers Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE), IBM Corporation and Quantum Corporation (and their predecessors) to help address the growing demands of data protection in the midrange to enterprise-class server environments. This ultra-high capacity generation of tape storage products is designed to deliver outstanding performance, capacity and reliability combining the advantages of linear multi-channel, bi-directional formats with enhancements in servo technology, data compression, track layout, and error correction.


'Linear' technology is the simplest of tape technologies. It writes data in long tracks down a tape. Its been said that linear tapes are 12mm wide, and a kilometer long. A simple, old style linear tape wrote 9 tracks straight up a tape, 8 tracks were for data, and the 9th was for simple error correction. Modern technology gets high capacity by writing up and down the tape several times. For example, the LTO8 format will record up to 6656 tracks, 32 tracks at a time across a 1/2 inch tape. It can write in either direction, so it writes tracks down the tape, reverses, and writes back up again. It also has embedded 'servo tracks' to allow fast location of specific data on a tape. This is illustrated by the diagram below. The tape head assembly has up to 34 head elements. It always has 2 read elements for the servo tracks and up to 32 data read/write head elements. These heads can read or write up to 32 tracks in a single pass up the tape, and each end-to-end pass is called a 'wrap'. The head assembly is then moved to the side to process the next wrap down the tape. An LT08 cartridge will need 208 wraps to access the whole tape.


The creation and capture of value through open platform: the business model utilising two-sided markets by managing standardisationby Haruo Awano; Masaharu TsujimotoInternational Journal of Services Technology and Management (IJSTM), Vol. 27, No. 4/5/6, 2021Abstract: The emergence of the internet of things (IoT) requires substantial increases in the storage needed to store IoT data. This storage technology and products are important to realise the IoT. Linear tape open (LTO) format is a key to storage of data transmitted by internet for IoT system. This paper examines a business model involving the LTO and digital linear tape (DLT) storage formats to clarify how value is created and captured by such open platforms as these storage formats. Recent studies have clarified that successful firms must openly disclose the external interfaces necessary to create complements while still protecting their competitive advantage through proprietary architecture. Few studies have examined the difference between open and proprietary architectures in the case of two-sided markets from a standpoint of obtaining profits. This research has found that the proprietary architecture to close the core technology need not necessarily be built for two-sided market.Online publication date: Thu, 14-Oct-2021


EconPapers FAQ Archive maintainers FAQ Cookies at EconPapers Format for printing The RePEc blog The RePEc plagiarism page The benefits of migrating content to the cloud: How mass tape-to-cloud migration services helped the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame preserve music historyKyle Evans and Jennie ThomasAdditional contact information Kyle Evans: Tape Ark Global HQ, AustraliaJennie Thomas: Library & Archives, Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, USAJournal of Digital Media Management, 2021, vol. 9, issue 3, 209-218Abstract:When the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame opened the doors on its library and archives in 2012, magnetic backup tape storage was the right solution for managing large files like the ones for its induction ceremonies, original concerts, education series and programmes. Over time, however, many of those tapes became less accessible due to hardware and software failures and onsite storage limitations. In 2018, after the Rock Hall evaluated its underlying technical infrastructure and needs, it decided to do what a growing number of organisations have been doing: migrate to the cloud. This case study examines how mass tape-to-cloud migration services helped the Rock Hall move data stored on Linear Tape-Open (LTO) tape storage to the cloud, where it can be preserved for years to come while being instantly accessible at any time and from anywhere.Keywords: digital asset management; DAM; linear tape-open; LTO; cloud migration; stiction; hierarchical storage management; HSM; on-prem; sticky shed syndrome; orphaning; archives; preservation (search for similar items in EconPapers)JEL-codes: M11 M15 (search for similar items in EconPapers)Date: 2021References: Add references at CitEc Citations: Track citations by RSS feedDownloads: (external link) (application/pdf) (text/html)Requires a paid subscription for full access.Related works:This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.Export reference: BibTeX RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan) HTML/TextPersistent link: :aza:jdmm00:y:2021:v:9:i:3:p:209-218Access Statistics for this articleMore articles in Journal of Digital Media Management from Henry Stewart PublicationsBibliographic data for series maintained by Henry Stewart Talks (Obfuscate( 'hstalks.com', 'support' )). var addthis_config = "data_track_clickback":true; var addthis_share = url:" :aza:jdmm00:y:2021:v:9:i:3:p:209-218"Share This site is part of RePEc and all the data displayed here is part of the RePEc data set. Is your work missing from RePEc? Here is how to contribute. Questions or problems? Check the EconPapers FAQ or send mail to Obfuscate( 'oru.se', 'econpapers' ). EconPapers is hosted by the Örebro University School of Business.


HP has expanded its linear tape open (LTO) technology portfolio with the upgraded StorageWorks LTO-5 Ultrium tape drives. Available with the StorageWorks MSL tape libraries, the archive solutions enable businesses to manage information through enhanced data protection, disaster recovery as well as long-term data retention operations.


Magnetic tape remains the most common choice for very large data volumes. To illustrate the progression of storage capacities, one of the most widely used tape formats is linear tape open (LTO). The first generation of LTO cartridge, released in 1999, could store 100 gigabytes of uncompressed data. By 2002, the second generation offered 200 gigabyte capacities. The current LTO 3 format boasts 400 gigabytes per tape, with 800 GB expected by 2009 and 3.2 TB beyond that.


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